Function, Principle, and Applicable Population of Pulse Oximeter

A pulse oximeter provides a non-invasive method to measure oxygen saturation, also known as arterial hemoglobin saturation, in the blood. It can also monitor arterial pulsations and thus calculate and inform patients of their heart rate. A meditive pulse oximeter is a medical device used to measure the oxygen content of arterial blood in patients.

Basic functions of a meditive pulse oximeter

In addition to heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and temperature, pulse oximetry (PO) is considered the 5th most critical health condition indicator. Hemoglobin is an essential component of blood cells responsible for transporting oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues. The amount of oxygen in hemoglobin at any given time is called oxygen saturation. Oxygen saturation is expressed as a percentage and is the ratio of the oxygen content in hemoglobin to its oxygen-carrying capacity. Blood oxygen saturation is an important physiological parameter that reflects the normal respiratory function and oxygen content of the human body's various tissues. Severe hypoxia can lead directly to tragedies such as suffocation, shock, and death. In developed countries such as Europe and the United States, people attach great importance to monitoring blood oxygen, and pulse oximeters have a high popularity rate.

Measuring principle of a meditive pulse oximeter

Based on the changes in light absorption during arterial pulsation. Two light sources located in the visible red light spectrum (660 nanometers) and the infrared light spectrum (940 nanometers) alternately illuminate the test area (usually the fingertip or earlobe) of the patient. The amount of light absorbed during these pulsations is related to the oxygen content in the blood. The microprocessor calculates the ratio of the absorbed light from these two spectrums and compares the results with the saturation value table stored in memory to obtain blood oxygen saturation.

A typical blood pulse oximeter sensor has a pair of LEDs that face a photodiode through the patient's semi-transparent body part (usually the fingertip or earlobe). One of the LEDs is red with a wavelength of 660 nm; the other is infrared with a wavelength of 940 nm. The percentage of blood oxygen is calculated based on the measurement of the light of these two wavelengths, which have different absorption rates, passing through the body.

Population applicable for blood pulse oximeter

Patients in emergency and transport, firefighting, and high-altitude flights must monitor blood oxygen; patients with heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes, especially the elderly, all have respiratory problems, and monitoring blood oxygen indicators can provide a good understanding of their respiratory and immune system's normal functions. Blood oxygen saturation has become an important physiological indicator for ordinary families' daily monitoring. Medical personnel also use blood oxygen as a necessary monitoring item when making rounds and being on call, with usage trending higher than that of a stethoscope. Respiratory disease patients, especially those who snore for prolonged periods and those who use breathing machines and oxygen concentrators, use the blood pulse oximeter on a daily basis to monitor treatment effects. Outdoor sports enthusiasts, mountaineers, and athletes use blood pulse oximeter to know their physical condition and take necessary protective measures during exercise.

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